"JOURNAL OF RADIO ELECTRONICS" (Zhurnal Radioelektroniki ISSN 1684-1719, N 8, 2018

contents of issue      DOI  10.30898/1684-1719.2018.8.6     full text in Russian (pdf)  

Investigation of structure and electrical properties of graphene-containing shungite by data of electro-force spectroscopy.
Part 2.
Discreteness of structure

I. V. Antonets 1, E. A. Golubev 2, V. G. Shavrov 3, V. I. Shcheglov 3

1 Syktyvkar State University of Sorokin, Oktyabrskiy prosp. 55, Syktyvkar 167001, Russia

2 Geology Institute Komy SC UrD RAS, Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia

3 Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya 11-7, Moscow 125009, Russia


The paper is received on August 7, 2018


Abstract. This paper is the second part of materials in which authors investigate  the structure and electrical properties of graphene-contained shungite. These investigations are carried with the aim to know the possibility of shungite employment for the creating of planar structure intended electromagnetic radiation. These investigations are carried on the basis of conductivity maps obtained by electro-force spectroscopy method. In the introduction it is described the brief review of first part of this work and mentioned its results. It is described the basic properties of investigated specimens and also described the discretization of conductivity maps which allows by received binomial cards to found the structure parameters of specimens. It is described the scheme of receiving the carbon concentration on the basis of calculation white and black checks on the fields which are obtained from discretizated conductivity maps. It is established that the principal object of this work is the investigation of chains formed by white and black checks on binomial field of conductivity and also the connection of chains parameters with the founded in previous part of this work carbon concentration. It is described the scheme of white and black chain obtaining which characterized the map region length which corresponds to both phases. It is established that chains form white checks correspond to conducting carbon and chains from black checks correspond to nonconducting quarts. It is investigated different possibilities of scanning of binomial fields of conductive maps. It is found that scanning results may be depended of the scanning manner which is connected with variations of chain length in condition of insufficiency of scanning line length. In this case the principal meaning has the scanning along the horizontal and along the vertical lines of discretization field which is connecting with extent character of constant phase regions on the conductivity maps of shungite. On the basis of different versions of scanning it is established the optimal the successive scanning along the horizontal lines of conductivity map with following scanning along the vertical columns and middling of accepted results by both measuring. It is described the procedure of chains parameters founding by the results of scanning which is consisted of adding chain quantity established length along the all fields square. It is found the quantity of established length white and black chains along all investigated specimens. It is found the large data scattering in the specimens having the same carbon concentration. For the rise of objectivity in carrying measuring it is made the grouping of specimens by carbon concentration as a result it was formed nine groups corresponding to carbon concentration from 5 to 97 percents. It is investigated the distribution of chains quantity in connection with the carbon concentration. It is shown that the maximum quantity of chains is founded on middle concentration about 50% and in both sides from this number in the ends of concentration range the quantity of chains try to attain zero. It is found the dependence of white and black chain quantity from carbon concentration. It is found the approximation of experimental data by quadratic polynomial in less square method. It is shown that both dependencies in accuracy about several percents may be described by the same quadratic polynomial having maximum by the concentration 50% and equal to zero on the ends of concentration region as 0% and 100%. For this polynomial it is found the very simple analytical expression which describes the experimental data in the accuracy about several percents. For each value of given concentration it is established the parameter discretization of structure normalized to unit on maximum value of accepted polynomial. It is found the analytical expression which give possibility from merit in experiment value of discretization found the corresponding value of concentration. In the quality of measure of carbon concentration distribution it is established the single square parameter having the side equal to square root from area of region which length is equal to length of chain middles along the whole field by concentration is equal to 50%. It is shown that for investigated samples having concentration near 50% this parameter is equal about 2,5 mcm (exactly – 2,4776 mcm). It is established that the sine of single square may be established as a measure of distance between white and black regions on the initial conductivity map. In the case of obvious example it is made the assignation of single square on initial conductivity map for three specimens having concentration near the 50% (47% and 53%). It is demonstrated that this assignation approximately correspond to filling of intervals between the black regions by squares by white color. It is estimated very large subjectivity of this assignation and established that the alternative of its is the application of binomial discretization of initial conductivity maps which is the basis in this investigation. On the basis of received in experiments dependencies of white and black  chains from carbon concentration it is found the scattering of single square dimension. It is shown that the meddling by less square method this scattering is about 15% (exactly – 14,84%). For the characterization of carbon distribution along the specimen volume it is established the parameter of fractional which by concentration 50%  is equal to quantity of single cubes in volume unit (which is equal to 1 cube cm). The fractional parameter is generalized to the whole interval of concentrations by presented as a quadratic polynomial having maximum on the value by concentration 50% and values on the ends of concentration region are equal to zero. It is investigated the correlation between parameters discretization and fractional. It is established that distinction between its is in so that the discretization characterizes the degree of specimen disunity in regions of this or other phases and parameter fractional describe the quantity regions of this or other phases in unit of value. It is established that in the general case this parameters are not fully independent from each other but are connected by the single cube each phase dimension. By way of generalization of made investigation it is mentioned and brief characterized basal parameters which describe the spatial distribution of carbon in shungite so as carbon concentration, discretization of structure, single element dimension and fractional of structure. For the concentration of 50% on the basis of single element it is established the geometrically correct structure of alternation of regions both phases which is suitable to topological analysis. It is established the correspondence of this structure with before proposed shungite models so as «cubes with percolation» and «sand with liquid». It is shown that proposed structure is correspond to model «cubes with percolation» in the percolation moment but for the correspondence with model «sand with liquid» the dimensions of nonconducted phase cubes may be slightly decreased so as to release the gaps for the filling its by conducting phase. By way of structure nature of shungite is it proposed the supposition about possibility its structure forming by the process of coagulation which may be realized during geological history of shungite. It is established the analogy between the shungite structure character by different carbon concentration and magnetic domain structure behaviour by constant field magnetization. It is shown that the concentration of 50% correspond to demagnetized state of magnetic and changing of concentration to so or other sides correspond to magnetization of magnetic by the field different orientation. It is made the supposition about large increasing of screen ability of shungite in microwave region about 60 THz. As a possible reason of this large increasing of absorption it is supposed the resonance character interaction of incident electromagnetic wave with conducted dipoles formed by single regions of conducting phase. As a most important condition for continuation and further development of these works by investigations and application structure properties of shungite it is established the necessity of realization new geological expeditions with the purpose of obtaining large quantity specimens from different natural deposits.

Key words: carbon, shungite, electro-conductivity.


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For citation:
I. V. Antonets, E. A. Golubev, V. G. Shavrov, V. I. Shcheglov. Investigation of structure and electrical properties of graphene-containing shungite by data of electro-force spectroscopy. Part 2. Discreteness of structure. Zhurnal Radioelektroniki - Journal of Radio Electronics. 2018. No. 8. Available at http://jre.cplire.ru/jre/aug18/6/text.pdf

DOI  10.30898/1684-1719.2018.8.6