"JOURNAL OF RADIO ELECTRONICS" (Zhurnal Radioelektroniki ISSN 1684-1719, N 1, 2019

contents of issue      DOI  10.30898/1684-1719.2019.1.1     full text in Russian (pdf)  

Numerical modeling of a spatial distribution of a low frequency field strength produced by ionospheric onboard transmitter


A. V. Moshkov, V. N. Pozhidaev

Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Mokhovaya 11-7, Moscow 125009, Russia


The paper is received on December 10, 2018


Abstract. Artificial power low frequency transmitters are widely used  as wave sources in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere  for active experiments, for navigation and communication especially with underground or under water objects. In such projects the correct choice of type and placement of the radiating device is especially important. It is well known that earth located electric dipole is relatively non-effective low frequency source because of high earth conductivity in this frequency range. The HAARP project was recently developed particularly for creating an effective low frequency source situated in low disturbed polar ionosphere. Such a source is a result of nonlinear process of demodulation of modulated high frequency emission from a ground based power transmitter. This multistage process seems to have a relatively low efficiency. In this work we try to compare an electric field strength of the HAARP ‘virtual’ low frequency source with a field value of an onboard loop antenna in 1…10 kHz frequency range. The loop field calculations were carried out in linear cold plasma approximation. For excluding of plasma resonances singularities we use a model of the 'finit size' circular electric current source. It is shown that the loop field spatial distribution is extremely non uniform and is highly different from corresponding distribution in free space. It is also shown that onboard loop transmitter of ~1 kW power is capable to give approximately the same low frequency electric field strength in the low ionosphere as whole HAARP station.

Key words: disturbed high latitude low ionosphere, high power heating facility, low frequency emissions.


1. Moshkov A.V., Pozhidaev V.N. Spatial Distribution of the Demodulated Low-Frequency Field in the Ionosphere Perturbed by a High-Power Short-Wave Radiation. J. Communications Technology and Electronics, 2013, Vol. 58, No. 9, pp. 940-944.  DOI: 10.1134/S106422691309009X

2. Moshkov A.V., Pozhidaev V.N. Spatial Distribution of the Demodulated Low-Frequency Field in the Low-Latitude Perturbed Ionosphere. J. Communications Technology and Electronics, 2017, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 114-118.

DOI: 10.1134/S1064226917020085.

3. A.V. Moshkov, V.N. Pozhidaev Vertical Distribution of a Demodulated Low-Frequency Field in the Disturbed Low-Latitude Ionosphere. J. of Communications Technology and Electronics, 2018, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 118-122.

DOI: 10.1134/S1064226918020079

4. Moshkov A.V., Pozhidaev V.N. Distribution of the strength of the low-frequency field demodulated in the disturbed lower ionosphere over the earth surface. J. of Communications Technology and Electronics, 2018, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 413-419.  DOI: 10.1134/S1064226918050091

5. Sagdeev R.Z., Zhulin I.A. Active experiments in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere. DAN SSSRReports of the Academy of Sci. of the USSR. 1975, Vol. 220, No. 4, pp. 874-877. (In Russian)

 6. Eruhimov L.M., Genkin L.G. The Ionosphere as a plasma laboratory. Izvestiya vuzov. Radiofizika - Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 1992, Vol. 35, No. 11/12, pp. 363-387. (In Russian)

7. Davies K. Ionospheric radio waves. Blaisdell Pub. Co., 1969, 460 p.

8. Armand N.A., Semenov Y.P., Tchertok B.E. et al. An experimental study in the Earth’s Ionosphere of a ELF emission of a loop antenna situated onboard of the orbital complex ‘Mir-Progress-28-Souz TM-2’. Radiotechnica and Electronika - J. of Radiotechnics and Electronics, 1988, Vol. 33,  No. 11, pp. 2225-2233. (In Russian).

9. Koons H.C., Dazey M.N., Edgar B.C. Impedance Measurements on a VLF Multiturn Loop Antenna in a Space Plasma Simulation Chamber. Radio Sci., 1984, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 395-399.

10. Stix T.H. The Theory of Plasma Waves. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1962, 283 p.

11. Fatkullin M.N., Zelenova T.I., Kozlov V.K., Legenka A.D., Soboleva T.N. Empiricheskie modely sredneshirotnoy ionosfery. [Empirical models of the midlatitude ionosphere] Ěoscow, Nauka Publ. 1981. 256 p. (In Russian)

12. Staras H. The Impedance of an Electric Dipole in a Magnetoionic Medium. IEEE Tr. on Antennas and Prop., 1964, Vol. AP-12, No. 6, pp. 695-702.

13. Staras H. The “Infinity Catastrophe” associated with Radiation in Magnetoionic Media. Radio Sci., 1966, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 1013-1020.

14. Bellustin N.S. On whistler waves emission in plasmas. Izvestiya vuzov. Radiofizika - News of higher education schools. Radiophysics, 1978, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 22-35. (In Russian)

15. Mittra R., Deschamps G.A. Field Solution for a Dipole in an Anisotropic Medium.  “Electromagnetic Theory and Antennas”, part 1. Editedby E.C.Jordan. Pergamon Press, 1963, pp. 495-512.

16. Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs and mathematical tables.  Edited by M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun. USA. Department of Commerce. 1964, National bureau of standards applied mathematics series No. 55, 1060 p.

17. Jin G., Spasojevic M., Cohen M.B., Inan U.S., Lehtinen N.G. The relationship between geophysical conditions and ELF amplitude in modulated heating experiments at HAARP: Modeling and experimental results. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 2011, Vol. 116, No. A07310.  DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016664.

18. Palmer T.N., Alessandri A., Andersen U. et al. Development of a European multi-model ensemble system for seasonal to inter-annual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2004, Vol. 85, No. 6,  pp. 853-872.

19. Piddyachiy D., Inan U.S., Bell T.F., Lehtinen N.G., Parrot M.  DEMETER observations of an intense upgoing column of  ELF/VLF radiation excited by the HAARP HF heater. J. Geophys. Res., 2008, Vol. 113, No. A10308. DOI: 10.W29/2008JA013208.

20. Piddyachiy D., Bell T.F., Berthelier J.-J., Inan U.S., Parrot M. DEMETER observations of the ionospheric trough over HAARP in relation to HF heating experiments,   J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics,  2011,  Vol. 116,  No. A06304.       DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016128.

21. Cohen M.Â., Inan U.S., Piddyachiy D., Lehtinen N.G., Golkowski M.  Magnetospheric injection of ELF/VLF waves with modulated or steered HF heating of the lower ionosphere.  J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 2011,  Vol. 116,  No. A06308.  DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016194.

22. Cohen M.Â., Inan U. S. Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 2012,  Vol. 117, No. A08310.   DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017992.

23. Lehtinen N.G., Inan U.S. Radiation of ELF/VLF waves by harmonically varying currents into a stratified ionosphere with application to radiation by a modulated electrojet. J. Geophys. Res., 2008, Vol. 113, No. A06301. DO 10.1029/2007JA012911.

24. Lehtinen N.G., Inan U.S. Full-wave modeling of transionospheric propagation of  VLF waves. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2009, Vol. 36, No. L03104. DOI: 10.1029/2008GL036535.

25. Platino M., U.S. Inan U.S., Bell T.F., Parrot M., Kennedy E.J. DEMETER observations of  ELF waves injected with the HAARP HF transmitter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006, Vol. 33, No. 16.  DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026462.

26. Kulkarni P., Golkowski M., Inan U.S., Bell T.F. The effect of electron and ion temperature on the refractive index surface of 1 -10 kHz whistler mode waves in the inner magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 2015, Vol. 120, No. 2,  pp. 581-591.  DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020669.


For citation:

A. V. Moshkov, V. N. Pozhidaev. Numerical modeling of a spatial distribution of a low frequency field strength produced by ionospheric onboard transmitter. Zhurnal Radioelektroniki - Journal of Radio Electronics. 2019. No. 1. Available at http://jre.cplire.ru/jre/jan19/1/text.pdf

DOI  10.30898/1684-1719.2019.1.1