Abstract. The correlation between
structure of shungite and its electro-conductivity is investigated. The
structure of carbon regions arrangement on microscopic level is investigated by
raster (scan) electron microscope method. The carbon concentration is defined
as weight (in mass %) by coulomb-metric titration method. There were two of
investigation: 1 – the conductivity distribution on specimen surface element
card, 2 – the specific conductivity of shungite specimen as a whole. The
dynamical conductivity was defined from reflection and propagation of microwave
signal (in power) from 8 to 70 GHz. The static conductivity was measured by
contact method. The specimens were made as polished shungite plates of 20-50
mkm thickness and 2-3 square centimeter in area. The weight conducting carbon
concentration in specimens was from 3% to 95%. By analysis of carbon
distribution element cards two models of shungite integral conductivity is
constructed: “cubes with percolation” and “sand with liquid”. Both of these
models are based on observed in experiment dependence of static and dynamic conductivity
of shungite from carbon concentration. In conformity with model “cubes with
percolation” by the small carbon concentration (less than 40%) the both
conductivities are absent. By the middle concentration (about 40%-50%) the
conductivity is sharp increased. By the large concentration (more than 50%) the
conductivity is large and invariable. In connection with this model the
shungite structure is the total combination of conducted islands which connects
each other when the carbon concentration is increased. In this case the
percolation of structure take place and conductivity is sharp increased. In conformity
with model “sand with liquid” also by very small carbon concentration (down to
3%) the static conductivity of shungite is not disappeared. When the carbon concentration
is increased the shungite conductivity slowly increased without visible
changes. The increasing of conductivity occurs by linear law. This increasing
of conductivity takes place in all investigated specimens to very large carbon concentration
(to 95%). In connection with very large variety of shungite structure forms in
this paper the new classification based on its geometrical parameters is
proposed. This classification consist of six classes. Class ¹0. Carbon is
absent. The specimen consists of quarts. Class ¹1. The little carbon islands
take place in quarts matrix. Class ¹2. The thin short carbon ribbons take
place. The connection between ribbons is absent. Class ¹3. The thin long carbon
ribbons take place. These ribbons pass through whole specimen. The connection
between ribbons take place. Class ¹4. The carbon ribbons are very thick. Quarts
is the small islands in carbon matrix. Class ¹5. Carbon occupies the whole
volume. Quarts is absent. It is made the comparison of proposed models and
classification with real shungite samples having complex interior structure.
Key words: electro-conductivity,
shungite, composite medium.
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