are obtained the element
cards of conductivity distribution along the shungite surface
specimens. In according with carbon slides configuration are created two models
of integral conductivity of shungite: “cubes with percolation” and “sand with
liquid”. On the basis of these models are investigated the conditions of
shungite static and dynamic conductivity. By the electro-force microscopic
method it is made the local measuring of shungite static conductivity. It is
found the specific conductivities of some specimens with different carbon
containing. On the dependence of conductivity from carbon containing it is
found the sharp expansion near the carbon concentration is equal to 40%. This
expansion is explained on the basis of carbon formations percolation in the
inner structure of shungite. It is investigated the electrical conductivity
carbon-containing shungite in connection with different theoretical models of
two-component medium. On the basis of experimentally measured carbon and quartz
conductivity values it is found the values of integral specific conductivity of
shungite specimens as a whole. It is made the comparison of founded model
values of integral conductivity with the same values which are measured in
experiment. It is found the correlation between the models application and
volume containing of carbon in shungite. It is made the investigation of
shungite dynamical properties in microwave range. In experiment is measured the
reflection, propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in shungite
plates. The investigations were made in microwave range from 8 to 70 GHz for
shungite with carbon containing from 3 to 95%. It is shown that when the
carbon containing is increased the reflecting ability of shungite is also
increasing. It is found the dependence of reflection from frequency having the
falling linear character. It is investigated the dependencies of energy
coefficients of reflection, propagation and absorption from the weight carbon
concentration. It is shown that all of these dependencies are followed to
hyperbolic tangent law which is corresponded to the percolation mechanism of
conductivity. It is made the comparison of dynamic and static conductivities in
the broad range of carbon concentration. It is shown that by high carbon
containing the dynamic conductivity is more then static on 15 times and by low
concentration is approximated to its. The measured dependencies are explained
by the mechanism of dynamic conductivity which is based on the excitation of
granular currents in carbon slides. For the determination of substrate
influence on reflecting properties of shungite it is made the theoretical
investigation of electromagnetic wave propagation through two-layer structure.
It is investigated the frequency dependencies of reflected and propagated
signal amplitudes. It is found the high anomaly having resonance character
which consists of large decreasing of reflecting possibility of glass substrate
in narrow frequency range (about 10% form main frequency). For the explanation
of this anomaly it is proposed the model of excitation of fourth mode standing
electromagnetic wave through the glass substrate thickness. It is made the
experimental testing of founded dependencies. It is found the acceptable
quality agreement between theory and experiment. Ii is found that for the
quantity agreement it is needed the consideration of large exceeding of dynamic
conductivity above static conductivity. It is shown that the numerical
appreciation of this exceeding is equal to two orders or more which is in well
agreement with granular currents model.
Key words: electro-conductivity,
shungite, composite medium.
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