Abstract. This work is devoted to solving the problem of
selectivity of electromagnetic activation of drug carriers. Ultrashort
electrical pulses of high voltage were used as a remote stimulating effect. A
special class of stimulus-sensitive drug carriers was used representing
nanocomposite liposomal membraneous capsules containing significantly
anisotropic particles - gold nanorods – bound to the membrane surface.
Nanocomposite liposomal capsules were based on the unilamellar liposomes
synthesized by standard ultrasonic method using amphiphilic compounds
phosphatidylcholine (80%) and stearoylspermine (20%). Gold nanorods with
typical diameter 10 nm and 100 nm length were used. as an essentially
anisotropic conductive nanoparticles. The duration of an electrical pulse used
was about 10 ns. In this case, the electric field strength near the liposome
capsules was about 10 kV/cm.
The effect of decapsulation of nanocomposite liposomal capsules containing
significantly anisotropic gold nanorods bound to the liposomal membrane caused
by ultrashort electrical pulses was observed. The effect was registered using
conductometric method due to the changes of the conductivity of an aqueous
suspension of liposomal capsules which increased due to the NaCl salt release
from the internal volume of the capsule. This effect of decapsulation was
confirmed independently by transmission electron microscopy technique. The
mechanism of destruction of the nanocomposite liposomal membrane was proposed
based on the gold nanorods rotational displacement caused by the effect of the
external electric pulse. On the basis of this mechanism the theoretical
expression for the critical value of the pulse electric field which determines
the threshold of the decapsulation effect was found. The numerical value of the
found critical field value was in agreement with obtained experimental data. It
was experimentally shown that the observed decapsulation effect was due to the
presence of gold nanorods bound with liposomal capsules, and decapsulation was
not observed in the absence of nanorods.
Keywords: capsules, liposomes,
structure, nanoparticles, gold nanorods, polyelectrolytes, pulse of electric
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